In Practice: How Do You Calculate Your Bmi
The body mass index enables estimating the amount of excess fat in the body to define corpulence. The higher the BMI is, the higher risks associated with obesity become.To calculate your BMI, you simply need to divide your weight by your height squared :BMI = Weight /height x height .
To determine your corpulence, consult the body mass index table by clicking on the link;;>> Here
Treating Rheumatoid Arthritis: The Sooner The Better
Treating rheumatoid arthritis early is critical for staving off its progression. Rheumatoid, if left untreated, can destroy the joints very quickly, Dr. DeLorenzo points out. Also, the chronic inflammation from the immune system can cause other issues, like heart disease or lung disease.
If you are experiencing arthritic symptoms, Dr. DeLorenzo says to visit your primary care doctor first, to see if they can give you a definite diagnosis. From there, if your doctor thinks you have rheumatoid arthritis, you will be sent to a rheumatologist, who will recommend:
- Regular exercise
- Taking anti-inflammatory medications
You will likely also be put on disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs to halt the progression of the disease.
Where Does Arthritis Occur
Arthritis can occur in any joint in the human body.
Common places for arthritis to occur are in the knuckles of the hands, the elbows, shoulders, and knees. Knee arthritis is particularly common.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 45% of adults in the U.S. experience achy knees, swelling in the knee, or knee pain when running or walking. People who have had a knee injury are 57% more likely to have some form of knee arthritis. The risk of arthritis in the knees, knee swelling or having achy knees goes up to 60% or almost two-thirds of obese people.
Another common place to experience arthritis is in the acromioclavicular joint. AC joint arthritis is found on the shoulder of the collarbone where it touches the top of the shoulder blade.
The AC joint allows the arms to rise above the head and all around the body. Similar to arthritis in other parts of the body, AC joint arthritis is usually caused by occupational wear and tear, aging, or cartilage degeneration after an injury.
Pain in the shoulders while trying to comb hair, reach for the back pocket, or during any athletic activity may be due to AC joint arthritis.
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Drug Slows Knee Osteoarthritis Progression
Nov. 12, 2012 — A drug used outside the U.S. to treat osteoporosis may not only lessen the everyday pain associated with knee osteoarthritis, but may even slow down the progression of osteoarthritis, researchers say.
The drug is called strontium ranelate.
In a three-year study of more than 1,300 people with knee osteoarthritis, digital X-rays revealed substantially less loss of cartilage in the joint space in those who took strontium ranelate every day compared with people who took a placebo daily.
In people with osteoarthritis, the cartilage in a joint wears away in some areas. The function of cartilage is to reduce friction in the joints and serve as a “shock absorber.” The wearing away of cartilage leads to pain and other symptoms.
Nearly one in 100 people have evidence of knee osteoarthritis on an X-ray. And nearly 19% of women and 14% of men age 45 and older have joint pain, stiffness, and other symptoms of knee osteoarthritis, according to a large 2007 study.
Study head Jean-Yves Reginster, MD, PhD, presented the findings today at the American College of Rheumatology Annual Meeting in Washington, D.C. He is president and chair of the department of public health sciences at the University of LiÃ¨ge in Belgium.
How Can I Prevent My Rheumatoid Arthritis From Progressing
Owing to the newer procedures available nowadays, the progression of rheumatoid arthritis is no longer inevitable. To try and prevent your rheumatoid arthritis from progressing and leading to complications and lasting joint damage, take the following steps:
- Quit smoking, cut down on drinking
- Avoid putting strain on the joints
- Develop a light but regular exercise routine
- Follow an anti-inflammatory diet plan
- Maintain a healthy weight
- Get plenty of rest and sleep
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Vitamin E Maintains Sex Organ Functions Which May Delay The Progression Of Osteoarthritis
Vitamin E has important effects on the reproductive system. Free radicals and reactive oxygen species, such as hydroxyl radicals, superoxide and hydrogen peroxides, can cause lipid peroxidation . Deficiency of vitamin E may lead to damage of the reproductive organs, resulting in conditions such as testicular damage, degenerative spermatogonia and degeneration of the seminiferous tubules . A study in goats conducted by Hong et al found that vitamin E supplementation improved the weight of the epididymis, the density and diameters of convoluted seminiferous tubules, spermatogenic cell density and epididymis ductule diameters, particularly when administered at dosages of 80 and 320 IU/day . A study conducted by Rao et al to investigate nickel- and/or chromium-induced toxicity in the mouse ovary suggested that vitamin E exerted a protective effect by preventing lipid peroxidation and protecting the antioxidant system . Sex organs play a vital role in secretion. Estrogens have been proposed to act as protective factors by certain authors, but as pathogenic determinants of osteoarthritis by others . While the effects of hormone replacement therapy in osteoarthritis appear to be modest, some large observational studies have concluded that when administered over a prolonged period, HRT may exert a beneficial effect on the structural progression of osteoarthritis, particularly in the lower limbs .
Symptoms Of Progressive Rheumatoid Arthritis
Here are some general warning signs and symptoms that you may have developed progressive rheumatoid arthritis:
The active state of the disease is becoming more frequent Flare-ups are occurring regularly and lasting for longer periods of time Your pain and swelling are becoming more intense, spreading throughout other areas of your body Your diagnosis occurred early on, and so the disease has had a long time to develop You are beginning to develop rheumatoid nodules that you didnt have before Your blood tests show high levels of Rheumatoid Factor or anti-CCP
If you suspect that your rheumatoid arthritis has become progressive, consult your rheumatologist to determine the changes in your condition and discuss potential adjustments to your treatment plan.
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Is Arthritis The Same Thing As A Degenerative Joint Disease
A degenerative joint disease is the same thing as osteoarthritis. A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia says that osteoarthritis, or degenerative joint disease, is caused by aging or wear and tear on the joints. Osteoarthritis is sometimes called a degenerative joint disease because the soft, cushion-like cartilage found between all bones at the joints breaks down and wears away. This is called degeneration of the joints and is why arthritic joints hurt so much.
The bones in the joints affected by arthritis touch each other unprotected, slowly and painfully rubbing and grinding the bones away. The joints hurt with sometimes excruciating pain, becoming stiff, swollen, and inflamed. The muscles and ligaments surrounding the joints become weaker, increasing the risk of falls and fractures. Sometimes the joints make a creaking or grinding sound. They can be very tender to the touch, have a limited range of motion, and make even simple tasks extremely difficult to perform.
Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disorder. With rheumatoid arthritis, the immune system attacks the joints, eating away the synovium- a lining surrounding the joint capsule which lubricates the joints.
Can Osteoarthritis Be Prevented Or Avoided
Theres not much you can do to avoid getting osteoarthritis as you age. However, the following may help:
- Try to not overuse your joints.
- Try to avoid jobs or activities that require repetitive movement.
- Maintain a healthy body weight.
- Do strength-training exercises to keep the muscles around your joints strong. This is especially important for weight-bearing joints, such as the hips, knees, and ankles.
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When Is A Medical Examination Necessary
Although early stages of arthritis can be treated naturally, in advanced cases, it is beneficial to visit a qualified health professional to help manage pain and other symptoms associated with arthritis. Not to say that advanced arthritis cannot be reversed or benefited by natural treatments for arthritis, but if you are in extreme pain or have a greatly reduced range of motion, a combination of natural and medical treatments can help improve your quality of life faster.
If you have any of the following symptoms, consult with a qualified health professional:
- Extreme fatigue that lasts more than a week.
- Easy bleeding and bruising.
- Shortness of breath and other breathing problems.
- Pain while urinating.
- Stiffness that doesnt fade after a couple of hours.
- Extreme pain while moving joints.
Does It Hurt All The Time
According to various studies done on the progression of osteoarthritis, exercising regime has been shown to control the symptoms such as pain in a much better way than pharmacological treatment. The regular exercising regime must be followed because it increases the strength of the surrounding muscles of the affected joint and helps to maintain the joint space. Correcting the posture and following a 30 minutes moderate-intensity exercise routine will be very helpful to curb the progression of osteoarthritis.
Few of the pharmacological treatment has also been considered to reduce the progression of osteoarthritis but it cannot be completely stopped once it has set in. In various studies, vitamin E supplementation is effective in curbing the causes of osteoarthritis because it is an effective antioxidant. Painkiller especially the group of Cox 2 enzyme inhibitors is commonly given in the patients suffering from osteoarthritis because they are very much effective in relieving the pain but not much effect has been seen on the progression of osteoarthritis.
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No : Avoid Injuries Or Get Them Treated
Suffering a joint injury when you are young predisposes you to osteoarthritis in the same joint when you are older. Injuring a joint as an adult may put the joint at even greater risk. A long-term study of 1,321 graduates of Johns Hopkins Medical School found that people who injured a knee in adolescence or young adulthood were three times more likely to develop osteoarthritis in that knee, compared those who had not suffered an injury. People who injured their knee as an adult had a five times greater risk of osteoarthritis in the joint.
To avoid joint injuries when exercising or playing sports, the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases recommends the following:
- Avoid bending knees past 90 degrees when doing half knee bends.
- Keep feet as flat as possible during stretches to avoid twisting knees.
- When jumping, land with knees bent.
- Do warm-up exercises before sports, even less vigorous ones such as golf.
- Cool down after vigorous sports.
- Wear properly fitting shoes that provide shock absorption and stability.
- Exercise on the softest surface available; avoid running on asphalt and concrete.
If you have a joint injury, it’s important to get prompt medical treatment and take steps to avoid further damage, such as modifying high-impact movements or using a brace to stabilize the joint.
Stage : Antibodies Develop And Swelling Worsens
In many cases, RA progresses to the second stage without being diagnosed. In the second stage the body makes the antibodies and the joints start swelling up, Dr. Bhatt says. It can affect other organ systems and cause inflammation there: the lungs, the eyes, a skin rash, and it can even affect the heart. Lumps on the elbows called rheumatoid nodules may also develop.
When it comes to imaging results, the second stage is more confirmative for the diagnosis, Dr. Bhatt says. It has kind of a moth-eaten, chipped off appearance on the X-rays. Ultrasound can also be done, and the most sensitive is an MRI, which would pick up if there are any problems even if the X-ray is normal.
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What Causes Arthritis
Its difficult to determine one single cause for arthritis. This is partly because there are so many different types of arthritis, and partly because in any given type of arthritis, there are multiple factors at play. There are, however, some commonalities and general trends across the spectrum.
- Immune System DysfunctionProblems with the immune system can be a cause of some types of arthritis, such as rheumatoid arthritis or systematic lupus erythematosus.
Should I See A Doctor
Its common to have aches and pains in your muscles and joints from time to time. This may especially be true if you take part in unusual or strenuous physical activities.
So, how can you tell the difference between the early signs of arthritis and normal pain and stiffness? And, how do you know when you should see a doctor about your symptoms?
If you have swelling or stiffness that you cant explain and that doesn’t go away in a few days, or if it becomes painful to touch your joints, you should see a doctor. The earlier you get a diagnosis and start the right type of treatment, the better the outcome will be.
Here are some other things to think about that might help you decide whether you need to see a doctor:
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Ra Progression Isnt Inevitable
Thanks to the newer treatments available and more on the horizon RA doesnt have to mean a life of eventual disability or even limited mobility. Its not an inevitable thing nowadays, says Dr. Bhatt. People can have a normal life.
But patients do have to be sure to follow their treatment plan and doctors recommendations. Routine follow-up with a rheumatologist who performs joint exams, follows levels of systemic inflammation in the blood and can assess function is the best way to ensure RA is being controlled and is not progressing, Dr. Lally says.
What Are The Risk Factors For Osteoarthritis
In addition to age and secondary causes such as inflammatory arthritis and prior injury/ trauma, several other risk factors increase the chance of developing osteoarthritis including obesity, diabetes, elevated cholesterol, sex, and genetics.
- Obesity is a risk factor for osteoarthritis, particularly of the knee. In addition to overloading the weight-bearing mechanisms of the body, the metabolic and pro-inflammatory effects of obesity have been studied as contributory to osteoarthritis. Maintaining ideal body weight or losing extra weight is important for those at risk.
- Both diabetes and hyperlipidemia contribute to the inflammatory response within the body, increasing the risk of osteoarthritis. Oxidation of lipids can also create deposits in cartilage which affects affecting blood flow of subchondral bone in the same way that blood vessels are affected by atherosclerosis. Elevated blood sugars, as well as elevated cholesterol/lipids, increase free radicals within the body, this oxidative stress exceeds the resilience of cartilage on the cellular level. Controlling diabetes and hyperlipidemia is important for bone health in addition to general health.
- Heredity can play a role in osteoarthritis, as individuals born with other bone diseases or genetic traits may be more likely to develop osteoarthritis. For example, Ehlers-Danlos, which is characterized by joint laxity or hypermobility, can contribute to osteoarthritis.
Proper Oseteoarthritis Treatment Includes Exercise
There’s no cure for osteoarthritis, but there is a lot you can do to slow its progression, reduce pain, and maintain or improve function. Losing weight can be particularly helpful if you’re overweight or obese. You can often relieve pain with over-the-counter analgesics such as acetaminophen and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs , including ibuprofen and aspirin. The use of canes, splints, or braces may be necessary to protect a joint from further injury.
But if there’s one osteoarthritis treatment an individual with osteoarthritis should do every day, it’s exercise. Regular exercise strengthens muscles and improves flexibility and balance. It not only helps ease pain and stiffness but also improves overall health. It’s also good for your mood and for staving off other conditions prevalent in older age.
Exercise as an integral part of prevention and treatment of osteoarthritis, especially in people ages 65 and over. After reviewing the evidence, the group also concluded that moderate-intensity exercise does not as some have feared increase the risk for osteoarthritis.
Research suggests that older women may be able to prevent osteoarthritis pain by getting as little as one to two hours of moderately intense physical activity each week. Lack of exercise may contribute directly to osteoarthritis, especially by causing the atrophy of supportive and shock-absorbing muscles, such as those surrounding the knee.
What To Do When Faced With Early Signs Of Ra
Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease, which means that in some cases, it may not be preventable. Medical professionals are not quite sure why RA starts or what can prevent it. However, it is linked with a variety of health conditions that may increase your likelihood of getting the disease. Namely, a large amount of inflammation in the body seems to trigger the immune system to start attacking healthy cells, leading to inflammation and deterioration in the joints.
According to Healthline, there are four risk factors that could increase a persons chance of developing RA.
First, women are more likely to develop RA than men. About 70 percent of all RA cases in the United States are women.
Secondly, many RA patients have specific human leukocyte antigen genes. However, not everyone with these genes develops RA.
Third, smoking has been linked with an increased risk of developing RA. Finally, leading a sedentary lifestyle and being overweight also increases a persons risk.
Therefore, by eliminating these problems, you reduce your risk of getting RA or seeing it progress further. Additionally, improving the immune system may help prevent further development of the disease. If you have early warning signs of arthritis, here is what you can do to slow or reverse the progression of the disease:
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