Genetics Of Rheumatoid Arthritis
The strongest genetic association in RA is observed with the major histocompatibility complex class II, DR1 gene. This highly polymorphic gene encodes a cell surface molecule that is primarily expressed in antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells, macrophages, and B cells. This molecule mediates the presentation of peptide antigens to T cells, which stimulates the cellular response to these antigens. Many variants of HLADR1 are associated with RA, and some variants are also associated with periodontitis. This association is due to five key amino acids on the side wall of the HLADR1 molecule . This sequence is a shared epitope, and predisposition to the disease requires the presence of positively charged arginine and lysine residues at position 71 in the HLADR1 molecule. This positively charged motif sequence presents citrulline residue-containing peptides to T cells.
The Importance Of Seeing A Rheumatologist
Thats why its important to see a rheumatologist if you think you might have arthritis symptoms, advises Elaine Husni, MD, MPH, vice chair of the department of rheumatic and immunologic diseases and director of the Arthritis Center at the Cleveland Clinic. A rheumatologist is a doctor who specializes in treating arthritis and certain autoimmune disease. They are trained to diagnose RA at an earlier stage, which may minimize unnecessary testing and treatment and help to improve overall patient outcomes.
That advice would have benefited CreakyJoints member Lindsey Stambaugh. Her symptoms also began after the birth of her son. Her first doctor told her the pain was psychological a few years later, she was sent to a pain clinic, where she was given medications and injections to mute the symptoms. It wasnt until Stambaugh started working in a rheumatologists office, who recognized symptoms during one of her flare-ups, that she was evaluated for and diagnosed with RA.
Symptoms And Treatment Of Rheumatoid Arthritis
Rheumatoid ArthritisBrandon HolleyPAS5430 Winter 2017 – Class 6 Clinical PresentationDisease Overview. Rheumatoid Arthritis is considered the most common autoimmune inflammatory arthritis disease diagnosed in adult patients and affects quality of life and leads to increased mortality rates. It is defined as a chronic, inflammatory, systemic autoimmune disorder characterized by symmetric, erosive synovitis that often leads to joint destruction, deformity, and disability. If
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Rheumatoid Arthritis And Its Effects On Todays Society
Rheumatoid Arthritis and Its Effects on Todays SocietyToday in the United States there is an estimated 1.3 million people living and dealing with rheumatoid arthritis . One might ask, what exactly is rheumatoid arthritis? Well, rheumatoid arthritis, also commonly known as RA, is a form of inflammatory disease and an autoimmune disease. If the person is a minor, or below the age of six-teen, then the chronic disease can also go by the name of juvenile arthritis. The juvenile
How Is Ra Diagnosed
RA is diagnosed by reviewing symptoms, conducting a physical examination, and doing X-rays and lab tests. Its best to diagnose RA earlywithin 6 months of the onset of symptomsso that people with the disease can begin treatment to slow or stop disease progression . Diagnosis and effective treatments, particularly treatment to suppress or control inflammation, can help reduce the damaging effects of RA.
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Rheumatoid Arthritis Symptoms And Risks
Joint pain is the most common symptom of rheumatoid arthritis, as well as joint swelling and reduced range of motion. RA is described as symmetrical because it typically affects both sides of the body. Many joints can be affected but the mostly commonly affected joints include the fingers, wrists and toes.
Because RA is an autoimmune disease, many people with rheumatoid arthritis show symptoms that are common to other autoimmune disorders. Its also common for more than one autoimmune disorder to be present at one time.
People can be diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis at any age. RA symptoms affect women more frequently than men. In fact, women are 3 times more likely to be diagnosed with RA than men.
What Causes Autoimmune Diseases
The precise cause of autoimmune diseases is unknown. However, there are risk factors that may increase your chances of getting an autoimmune disease. Risk factors include:
- Some medications. Talk to your healthcare provider about the side effects of medications for blood pressure, statins and antibiotics.
- Having relatives with autoimmune diseases. Some diseases are genetic they run in families.
- Temperature sensitivity.
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How Is Rheumatoid Arthritis Different From Other Types Of Arthritis
People often confuse rheumatoid arthritis with other types of arthritis or other inflammatory diseases. In fact, there are several different types of inflammatory diseases that accompany arthritis that may or may not be rheumatoid arthritis.
Types of inflammatory arthritis include:
- Rheumatoid arthritis: The most common form of inflammatory arthritis in which the bodys immune system attacks its own joints.
- Psoriatic arthritis: An inflammatory arthritis that usually develops in a person with psoriasis.
- Ankylosing spondylitis: A type of inflammatory arthritis that primarily affects the spine and sacroiliac joints located in the back of the pelvis.
- Juvenile idiopathic arthritis: The most common type of arthritis in children.
- Systemic lupus erythematous: A chronic autoimmune disease that can cause joint pain, skin rash and damage to internal organs.
The most common type of arthritis, osteoarthritis, does not usually cause the degree of inflammation found in rheumatoid arthritis and is a different disease with different treatments.
How Are Autoimmune Diseases And Rheumatoid Arthritis Related
From the WebMD Archives. When your doctor tells you that you have rheumatoid arthritis , he may also say its an autoimmune disease. You might not think it has anything in common with conditions like type 1 diabetes or multiple sclerosis. But it does. They all result when something misfires in your immune system.
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Treatment Of Rheumatoid Arthritis
Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis: BiologicsA critique of an article published by The New York Times suggests a Breakthrough in treatment for joint pain of patients suffering from Rheumatoid arthritis. The article suggests that a drug known as a Biologic taken with Methotrexate may effectively treat pain and swelling symptoms caused by Rheumatoid Arthritis. Before critiquing the article, it is necessary to discuss the anatomy and physiology of Rheumatoid Arthritis so you may have a better understanding
Rheumatoid Arthritis And Treatment Of Arthritis Essay
Rheumatoid Arthritis or RA has been around since early humanity. Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory joint disease, which can cause cartilage and bone damage. Diseased joints have been found in well preserved Egyptian mummies. Showing that arthritis was prevalent among Egyptians. Hippocrates a Greek physician who is known for the Hippocratic oath, described the symptoms of arthritis. It was not until 216 AD that the term rheumatismus was used to describe the joint inflammation. Alfred
Is Rheumatoid Arthritis Hereditary
Rheumatoid arthritis isnt considered a hereditary disease, yet it does appear to run in families. This may be due to environmental causes, genetic causes, or a combination of both.
If you have family members who have or have had RA, talk to your healthcare provider, especially if you have any symptoms of persistent joint pain, swelling, and stiffness unrelated to overuse or trauma.
Having a family history of RA increases your risk of getting the disease, and early diagnosis can make a big difference in how effective treatment will be.
Signs And Symptoms Of Autoimmune Disease
Autoimmune diseases can develop from a variety of factors with no known definitive causes for the onset of the disease. Some suspected sources are:
- Bacterial or viral infection
- Chemical toxins
- Environmental pollutants
When the immune system determines that healthy cells are foreign, it begins to produce antibodies to fight off the healthy cells it believes to be the source of an illness or infection. When an autoimmune disease is suspected, a rheumatologist will administer tests to determine what antibodies are being produced. There are more than 80 potential autoimmune diseases and some of the most common areas affect can be:
- Joints and muscles
- Blood vessels
- Connective tissue
When faced with symptoms or an autoimmune disease diagnosis, it is very important to seek treatment from an experienced rheumatologist to find the best plan to manage symptoms. Dr. Susan Baker, MD specializes in Rheumatology and Internal Medicine in Beverly Hills, and offers patients everything from arthritis treatment to Lupus.
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Rheumatoid Arthritis And Osteoarthritis
Rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis are both types of arthritis. Both require medication that can help the disease, but the medication have side effects such as affecting the heart, kidney, lungs, and the skin. Neither rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis have any known cures. According to the website healthline.com, Both types of arthritis are more common in women than men. Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid arthritis are more prevalent in older adults, but RA can develop at any age. Rheumatoid
Prevalence And Types Of Autoimmune Diseases
There are more than 80 types of autoimmune diseases. Symptoms depend on which part of the body is affected. There are autoimmune disorders that target specific types of tissue . Other autoimmune diseases may target a specific organ. Any organ can be involved. Characteristics that are typically associated with the autoimmune disease include inflammation, pain, muscle aches, fatigue, and a low-grade fever. Inflammation is usually the first sign of an autoimmune disease.
Autoimmune diseases affect more than 23.5 million Americans, according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. While some autoimmune diseases are rare, a number of the conditions are common. Autoimmune diseases can affect anyone but it is believed that some people have a genetic predisposition for developing an autoimmune disease under certain circumstances . People at greater risk for developing an autoimmune disease include:
- Women of childbearing age
- People who have a family history of autoimmune disease
- People who have certain environmental exposures that could act as the trigger
- People of a particular race or ethnicity
Many types of arthritis are considered autoimmune diseases, including:
- Ankylosing spondylitis
Chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia are not considered autoimmune diseases. This has been a source of confusion since some symptoms of chronic fatigue and fibromyalgia overlap with several autoimmune diseases.
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Rheumatoid Arthritis Diet Exercise Therapy Home Remedies And Alternative Medicine
Foods to avoid with RA
There is no special RA diet or diet“cure” for rheumatoid arthritis. One hundred years ago, it was touted that “night-shade” foods, such as tomatoes, would aggravate rheumatoid arthritis. This is no longer accepted as true. There are no specific foods or food groups that should be universally avoided by individuals with rheumatoid arthritis.
There is no evidence that gluten bothers rheumatoid arthritis. Nevertheless, for those who are definitely sensitive to gluten , the gluten-free diet can prevent poor intestinal absorption of important nutrients. Bowel inflammation can be detrimental for those with RA if they become deficient in nutrients, such as vitamin D and folate.
Foods that fight RA inflammation
Nevertheless, some home remedies may be helpful, although these are not considered as potent or effective as disease-modifying drugs. Fish oils, such as in salmon, and omega-3 fatty acidssupplements have been shown to be beneficial in some short-term studies in rheumatoid arthritis. This suggests that there may be benefits by adding more fish to the diet, such as in the popular Mediterranean diet. The anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin in dietary turmeric, an ingredient in curry, may be beneficial in reducing symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis.
Supplements for RA
Exercises and home remedies for RA
Rheumatoid Arthritis: Autoimmune Inflammatory Disease
Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune inflammatory disease that can affect any joint where two bones meet, causing them to painfully swell and possibly result in dislocation of the joints. This is caused from the synovial membrane being inflamed leading to cartilage and bone destruction. This can make simple functions of everyday living extremely difficult such as buttoning a shirt, turning a key in a lock, or holding a drinking glass. Common deformity of rheumatoid arthritis of the hand joints are
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What Are The Symptoms Of Rheumatoid Arthritis
The onset of rheumatoid arthritis is often gradual, and not every person experiences the same symptoms. Symptoms can also come and go. You may feel fine for days or months and then experience a flare in pain and swelling in the joints.
The first symptoms people often notice are stiffness, and pain or tenderness in their joints. The joints in wrists, hands, fingers and feet are most commonly affected early in rheumatoid arthritis’ progression.
This stiffness is usually worse in the morning but typically gets better throughout the day. Also, its usually present on both sides of the body.
People tend to have joint pain symmetrically, in multiple jointsin both hands, both wrists and both knees, for example, says Cristina Maria Brunet, MD, a Yale Medicine rheumatologist. “But that isnt always the case. There are exceptions.
Along with stiffness and pain, people with rheumatoid arthritis sometimes notice warmth, swelling or redness in their joints. If the disease worsens, it can eventually cause deformities and a loss of function in joints, although these problems are less common now with better and earlier treatment options.
Because of the inflammation in their bodies, people with rheumatoid arthritis often also experience related symptoms such as fatigue, loss of appetite and fever.
Ra And The Autoimmune Attack On Joints
In patients with ACPA and/or RF, autoantibody production and inflammation occurs systemically before it occurs in the joints. Therefore, it is thought that some other factor or trigger is involved in causing the early systemic autoimmune response to move to the synovium , leading to the symptoms characteristic of RA.1
This unknown factor causes leukocyte migration and infiltration into the synovium. As the immune system is activated and the disease progresses, a cascade of inflammatory cell types and immune system chemicals are produced. These immune system cells and the wide range of chemicals they produce play a role in the autoimmune process, which ultimately causes joint destruction.1
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Five Most Common Autoimmune Diseases
An autoimmune disease is the result of a malfunction in the immune system where healthy cells are mistaken for foreign bodies, causing the immune system to attack healthy cells in the body. It is estimated that as many as 50 million Americans suffer from some form of autoimmune disease. There are many different forms, and the symptoms and effects will vary from case to case. Treatment for autoimmune diseases typically focuses and managing pain and symptoms of the condition.
Is A Vaccine For Autoimmune Disease On The Horizon
A major breakthrough in the study of autoimmune diseases in the form of an experimental vaccine that prevents rheumatoid arthritis is reported in a leading academic journal.
Rheumatoid arthritis occurs when the bodys immune system attacks and breaks down healthy tissue usually the lining of joints in the hands, wrists, ankles and knees. It affects as many as 1% of the global population, there is no cure and we dont know exactly what brings it on.
This is true of nearly all autoimmune diseases, which makes treating or preventing them so difficult, says Dr Ritu Chakravarti, who heads up the new research.
A protein that the research team thought may trigger rheumatoid arthritis, actually protects against it. They used the protein to make a vaccine, and tests showed it promotes a strong, immediate and long-lasting response from the bodys immune system, providing protection against the disease.
Much to our happy surprise, the rheumatoid arthritis totally disappeared in animals that received a vaccine, Dr Chakravarti explains. The vaccine hasnt yet been tested in humans, so thats next on the agenda. We have not made any really big discoveries toward treating or preventing rheumatoid arthritis in many years, outlines Dr Chakravarti.
Click here to read the original research.
Major Players In The Autoimmune Response: Leukocytes
Leukocytes or white blood cells are key immune system cells that play a central role in the autoimmune response that occurs during RA. Leukocytes include a number of different types of white blood cells with different functions. Those with key involvement in the RA autoimmune response include neutrophils, lymphocytes , monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells . In addition to leukocytes, another immune system cell called a mast cell plays an important role in the autoimmune process, releasing cytokines, chemokines, and enzymes called proteases.
- Synthesize range of immune system chemicals
Rheumatoid Arthritis Is A Widespread Autoimmune Disease That Affects Millions Of People Around The World And Is Not Yet Treatable
A team of scientists from the College of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Toledo and Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, has developed an experimental vaccine that shows significant promise in preventing rheumatoid arthritis, a disease that is not yet treatable.
The study, published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, mark a significant advance in the research of rheumatoid arthritis and autoimmune illnesses in general.
Rheumatoid arthritis, one of the most prevalent autoimmune illnesses, develops when the bodys immune system assaults and destroys healthy tissue, most notably the lining of joints in the hands, wrists, ankles, and knees.
According to some estimates, rheumatoid arthritis affects up to 1% of the global population.
In spite of its high prevalence, there is no cure and we dont entirely know what brings it on. This is true of nearly all autoimmune diseases, which makes treating or preventing them so difficult, said Dr. Ritu Chakravarti, the study lead author from UToledo College of Medicine and Life Sciences.
If we can successfully get this vaccine into the clinic, it would be revolutionary.
Chakravarti has spent years researching a protein known as 14-3-3 zeta and its role in immunological pathologies such as aortic aneurysms and interleukin-17, a cytokine linked to autoimmune illnesses.
The study team had previously identified the protein as a potential cause for rheumatoid arthritis.
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